1682. Southern New Mexico.
Snow covers the ancient trail. Carts in the caravan are falling apart. Mules are dying. Men on horseback — head south on the trail — adrift without a home. They take note of the in-between places: the parajes of San Diego, Robledo, Robledo El Chico, Yerba del Manso (named after one of the plants that grows at the river bank), and Doña Ana – the places where they rest and sleep in the winter cold.
From Doña Ana, the men ride east toward a mountain range called Los Organos in search of trees for wood to build homes; they find only small pines. They see signs of people living in the area, well-worn paths taken by others. They enter a cave (perhaps, La Cueva) where Apaches have recently camped, and where others have lived in the distant past. Campfires burn at this ranchería.
On the tenth of February, three men sign a declaration summarizing this portion of a long expedition. It is the earliest record that references the paraje of Doña Ana and the marshy areas (charcos de Fray Blas, Estero Redondo and Estero Largo) south of Doña Ana on the way to Paso del Norte.
From this written record, we know of the river wetlands and bosques in the middle of the Chihuahuan desert of southern New Mexico. We know that the paraje of Doña Ana was named before or during the era of the Pueblo Revolt, and that this place was in the Apachería.
(Photo of the Organ Mountains, with La Cueva, courtesy of Patrick Alexander.)
 Declaration of Luis de Quintana, Joseph de Ugarte, and Juan de Echeverria, dated February 10, 1682, from Archivo General de la Nación, Mexico ramo Provincias Internas, tomo 34, expedientes 2-3, fol. 129r/123/98, in Craddock, J. R. (2016). Antonio de Otermín’s Attempted Reconquest of New Mexico Winter 1681-1682, at 131 and 268. UC Berkeley: Research Center for Romance Studies, Cibola Project. Retrieved from https://escholarship.org/uc/item/41d6w72g (transcribing and attaching documents pertaining to an expedition into New Mexico and the taking of testimony of Pueblo witnesses of the Pueblo Revolt.)
After their visit to northern New Mexico, Bishop Zubiría and his companions journeyed back south, reaching Doña Ana by mid-October of 1845. It must have been a relief for them to be able to stop (again) at Doña Ana , especially after traveling through the Jornada del Muerto.
After resting, Eulogio Tobar, a priest traveling with the Bishop, baptized the infants Jose Dionicio Relles, Jose Juan Montoya, Maria Cristina Montoya and Juliana Ydalgo of Doña Ana. The following day, the Bishop officiated a confirmation ceremony.
On both sides of one sheet of paper — now water stained — the names of the celebrants:
It was a special occasion: women, men and children abruptly leaving their work in the fields or the shade of their jacales and adobe homes to greet the Bishop; the Bishop who months earlier left Durango with his companions to travel on a multi-stop tour of Chihuahua and New Mexico, who reached this humble place called Doña Ana, between the river and the mountain ranges, a place he journeyed through several years before when it was just a dangerous camp site — and now was a place where crops were growing and where pobladores offered him water, food and smiles — basic human comfort.
The pobladores later gathered for Mass and Confirmation to be officiated by the Bishop, on May 15, 1845. Blessings, prayers and readings, signs of peace, wine and bread, blood and body. Some of the pobladores were not in attendance, having been killed or taken captive by Apaches. For them, more prayers.
Either the bishop or one of the priests wrote down on a sheet of paper the names of the confirmed, their parents and padrinos, then tucked the paper into a notebook, where it would remain for generations.
This record faded over time, yet some names still remain: Montoya being the most common.
 Jacales (jacal, singular) were homes made of poles, sticks, mud, grasses, hides — whatever could be found and used to create shelter. The word jacal is derived from the Nahuatl word Xacalli. See Nahuatl Dictionary at https://nahuatl.uoregon.edu/content/xacalli. The historical record reflects the use of jacales as homes by the indigenous and mestizos in Chihuahua and New Mexico. See, e.g., search results for the word “jacal” within the Cibola Project.
 Bishop José Antonio Laureano de Zubiría y Escalante first traveled to New Mexico in 1833. See Andrés Resendez, Changing National Identities at the Frontier: Texas and New Mexico, 1800-1850, at pp. 74-76, Kindle edition, (Cambridge University Press, 2004), 74-76.
 Pobladores (poblador or pobladora singular) means inhabitants or settlers in Spanish (Diccionario de la Lengua Española), and was the word used in historical records to describe the early inhabitants of Doña Ana. See e.g., Transcription of records within the Report of the Surveyor-General of New Mexico regarding the Doña Ana land grant in New Mexico, in Senate Documents, Otherwise Publ. as Public Documents and Executive Documents: 14th Congress, 1st Session-48th Congress, 2nd Session and Special Session. United States, n.p, 1874., 3-87.
 Record of Confirmations officiated by Bishop José Antonio Laureano de Zubiría y Escalante at (the place he called) Colonia de Santa Maria de Doña Ana, May 15, 1845, within records at the Church of Nuestra Señora de la Guadalupe, Paso del Norte (now Juarez), Chihuahua. See photographs of documents above.)
More than a few times, the Río Bravo (Rio Grande) shifted dramatically at Paso del Norte, especially at the Partido de Chamisal. Due to flooding, many families of Chamisal moved north to Doña Ana in the 1840s. The river continued to change course after it became a section of the boundary between Mexico and the United States.
The map above illustrates the river’s movement between the late 1820 and late 1890s. (Map courtesy of the Mapoteca Manuel Orozco y Berra — click map to enlarge).
In early July of 1845, Felipe Sena, on behalf of the Departmental Assembly of New Mexico, complained about the granting of land in Doña Ana. He argued that Doña Ana was in New Mexico (not Chihuahua), and proposed that the titles to land in Doña Ana be suspended pending re-granting of the lands by New Mexican authorities. (The Spanish Archives of New Mexico Vol. I, No. 257.)
A month later, U.S troops invaded New Mexico.
In 1839, Jose Maria Costales of Chamisal submitted a petition to the local Prefecture of Paso del Norte, asking that over a hundred families of El Paso be allowed to settle “el punto de Doña Ana.” The Prefecture then forwarded the petition to state officials of Chihuahua.
Why was the petition to settle Doña Ana sent to authorities in Chihuahua, instead of New Mexico? The answer: at the time, Paso del Norte and Doña Ana were in the jurisdiction of the State of Chihuahua. After the Mexican Independence, the State of Chihuahua’s northern border extended north of Paso del Norte (and north of Doña Ana) to the paraje de San Diego.
 Desconocidos, Mapa del Partidos de Estado de Chihuahua, circa 1830; Escudero, José de Agustin de. Noticias Estadísticas del Estado del Chihuahua. En la oficina del Puente de Palacio y Flamencos Núm. 1, por Juan Ojeda, 1834, p. 185 (“El punto limítrofe el estado de Chihuahua y el terrítorio de Nuevo México, es S. Diego, segun la diputacion provisional de dicho territorio.”)